عنوان مقاله [English]
The addition of the clause of "by oath of defendant" in Article 197 C.P.C. (Approved in 1379) raised questions, doubts, and discussions about the possibility or impossibility of issuing a sentence of acquittance of defendant without his oath, in cases of failure to provide evidence and not requesting the oath by the claimant, as well as the power or omission of the judge to swear defendant without asking. The analysis of this article requires the study of the subject in jurisprudence and the study of the viewpoint of the jurists. In jurisprudence, the issuance of verdict in favor of the defendant was not permitted solely on the basis of practical principles, including the principle of innocence, in cases of failure to provide evidence or requesting the oath by the claimant, and also the swearing of the defendant without the applicant's request. In the analysis of Article 197 C.P.C. it is necessary to provide an interpretation that does not contradict this article with jurisprudence and what is known as certain among the jurists.