نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق کیفری و جرمشناسی، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه حقوق کیفری و جرمشناسی،دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Sentencing studies indicate that female offenders typically receive less severe punishments than males and that the criminal justice system treats women more leniently than men. The current study, through theories such as paternalism (and its more recent versions) and evil woman theory, seeks to answer how gender as an extralegal factor affects the process of sentencing in drug offences and whether there is a difference in the effectiveness of theories depending on the social structure of the two societies, Iran and the United States.
In this study, qualitative research methods have been used. The content of documents, including cases of drug offences conviction (60 samples) between 2010 and 2020, and criminal justice officials’ discourse have been analyzed. In-depth interviews with judicial activists and drug lawyers (24 cases) were also used to understand the factors that encourage judges to impose lenient or severe punishments on women.
The findings of this study show that paternalistic attitudes toward women in Iranian society, Childcare, the social costs of punishing mothers, and the subordination of the partner are the main factors that reduce the likelihood of conviction of harsh sentences, such as the death penalty for women in Iran. On the other hand, criminal records in drug offences, high quantity of drugs, or illegal relationships are factors that lead to violations of gender norms and deprivation of women of leniency approach in the criminal justice system about drug offences.
https://www.hri.global/files/2019/03/12/death-penalty-impact-women.pdf (last visited on 26/12/ 2020).