تزاحم حق اشخاص مشهور با آزادی بیان در نظام‌های حقوقی آمریکا، فرانسه، آلمان و ایران

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق خصوصی و اسلامی، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

امروزه، استفاده از نشانه‌های هویتی اشخاص مشهور در تبلیغات تجاری افزایش یافته است. نظام‌های حقوقی نیز تلاش کرده‌اند تا با استناد به نهادهای حقوقی مختلف، از این اشخاص در برابر استفادۀ بدون اجازه از شهرتشان حمایت کنند؛ برای نمونه، در حقوق آمریکا، به حقی به نام حق جلوت استناد می‌شود. این حق، به این معناست که برای بهره‌برداری از شخصیت دیگری، باید از او اجازه گرفت. اگرچه دامنۀ این حق، هم اشخاص مشهور و هم اشخاص عادی را دربرمی‌گیرد، عمدتاً در رویۀ قضایی این کشور، این اشخاص مشهورند که برای دفاع از منافع خویش به حق یاد‌شده استناد می‌کنند. به هر روی، دربارۀ اصل وجود این حق، کمتر تردید شده است؛ اما دربارۀ قلمروی آن مجال گفت‌وگو بیشتر است: پرسش این است که آیا هرگونه استفاده از شهرت دیگری منوط به اجازۀ اوست یا آنکه می‌توان استثنائاتی بر لزوم اخذ اجازه وارد کرد. در حقوق آمریکا، اجرای تام حق جلوت را سبب نقض آزادی بیان و تجویز سانسور می‌دانند. برای همین، حق یاد‌شده را در پرتو آزادی بیان تعدیل کرده‌اند. مهم‌ترین دشواری در این مسیر، تعیین ضابطه‌ای برای تشخیص قلمروی حق جلوت و تمایز آن از حق آزادی بیان است. برای این منظور، معیارهای مختلفی ارائه شده است که مهم‌ترین آن، نظریۀ استفادۀ منصفانه است. بر این اساس، اگر شخص، در نشانه‌های هویتی شخص مشهوری دخل‌وتصرف کرده و آن را به‌گونۀ دیگری عرضه کند و در فرضی که استفاده از شهرت دیگری در راستای انتشار اطلاعات باشد، موضوع مشمول آزادی بیان خواهد بود. در واقع، در این دو فرض، حق جلوت با ارزشی مهم‌تر، یعنی آزادی بیان محدود خواهد شد. در نظام‌های حقوقی فرانسه و آلمان، در فرضی که انتشار اطلاعات در راستای منافع عمومی جامعه باشد، جانب آزادی بیان گرفته می‌شود. در این مقاله، تلاش می‌شود با مطالعۀ نظام‌های حقوقی یاد‌شده، پیشنهادهایی برای نظام حقوقی ایران ارائه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Conflict of two rights: publicity right and freedom of expression Focusing on Legal Systems of Iran, Germany, France & the USA

نویسنده [English]

  • Abbas Mirshekari
Assistant Professor, Department of Private and Islamic Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The individualization of criminal writ petitions in the international arena, such the use of celebrities’ identities in commercial advertising has increased nowadays. Legal systems have also tried to protect the rights of these individuals from being used without their permission. For example, according to the United States of America’s law, right of pre-emption is recognized. Publicity Right means that exploitation of another personality with his permission. Although the scope of this right includes both celebrities and ordinary people, but it is claimed mainly by famous people to fence their interests. Although there is no doubt about this right but there are disagreements over its realm: “Can an exception be made for this right or, any possible use of another personality is subject to the permission of the person?” In American law, full implementation of this right is known as a violation of freedom of expression. For this reason, this right has been modified and, in particular, its boundaries have been defined by freedom of expression. The most important challenge in this direction is determining the criteria for distinguishing the realm of the right. Various criteria are presented for this purpose. The most important criterion is the theory of fair use. Accordingly, if a person changes the identity of a celebrity and transform it into another form or, if the intention of the individual is to disseminate information about a famous person, his action will be justified. In fact, in these two cases, the right of publicity will be sacrificed at the expense of more important value: freedom of speech. In this article, we are trying to provide suggestions for the Iranian legal system by studying the USA legal system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reputation
  • Personality
  • Publicity right
  • Freedom of expression
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