نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
1 قاضی دادگستری، دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدۀ علوم اداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
2 قاضی دادگستری، دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی (واحد ورامین)، ورامین، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Capacity is the competence of individual statuses as natural persons and also juridical persons who are entitled to exercise rights and obligations. The concept of capacity has been accepted by most of the legal systems. Based on their capacity, individuals are aware of their potential rights and obligations.
The purpose of such regulations is to regulate the trading system in the general sense from birth (or formation) to the time of death (or dissolution). In this research, a comparative study between Iranian and French laws has been carried out by library and descriptive-analytical methods.
First, the concepts and principles related to the capacity of natural persons are mentioned. Then, this subject is examined in the field of commercial law.
The main question in this research is whether the rules related to the capacity of individuals in the field of business are similar to those of civil law or each field is governed by a distinct system. The other question in this research is whether the incapacitated persons have the opportunity to do business or not. Besides, whether or not the natural and legal guardians are capable to conduct businesses as the legal representatives of the mentioned individuals.
This research is based on the assumption that the regulations of civil and commercial capacity are similar to each other. However, there are some dissimilarities which need to be assessed.
Despite advocates beliefs, critics assume that, even in the case of permission of guardians, incapacitated adults are not able to carry out business activities. Meanwhile, the legal or natural guardians are not capable to conduct businesses as the legal representatives in this case.