عنوان مقاله [English]
A judgment issued by a foreign country has been recognized and enforced if originating court has jurisdiction for hear the matter. This jurisdiction has been evaluated on the base of rules of addressed country. The key question is what are the criteria for accepting the jurisdiction of a foreign court at the voting stage? Some countries have jurisdiction over a foreign court, such as a domestic court. Others, by limiting the scope of jurisdiction of a foreign court, accept the jurisdiction of a foreign court only on the basis of strict criteria.. In Iranian law, only the exclusive jurisdiction of the Iranian court is considered as an impediment for recognition of foreign judgments. The need to meet the legitimate expectations of private individuals and to provide predictability in cross-border relations requires that the jurisdiction of a foreign court be defined as in the 2019 Hague Convention and that litigants be assured of the condition of recognition in other countries before the trial begins. The lack of uniform jurisdiction rules among countries to recognize foreign court judgments undermines the efficiency and usefulness of international litigation and makes it impossible for free movement of judgments between countries. The need to meet the legitimate expectations of private individuals and to create predictability in cross-border relations requires that cases of jurisdiction of a foreign court be specified and that litigants ensure that this condition is met in other countries before a trial can begin.