تحریم اشخاص حقیقی از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل با تأکید بر تحریم برخی اتباع ایرانی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه قم

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه قم

چکیده

تحریم به عنوان ساز وکاری در روابط بین‌الملل برای الزام دولت متخلف به رعایت تعهدات بین‌المللی‌اش پیش‌بینی شده است. تحریم که از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل نوعی اقدام متقابل محسوب می‌شود تا پیش از این صرفاً علیه دولت‌ در تمامیت آن اعمال می‌شده است. ظهور تروریسم بین‌المللی و‌ایراداتی که متوجه تحریم‌های سنتی بود موجب گشت تا نسل جدیدی از تحریم‌های بین‌المللی معروف به تحریم هوشمند پدیدار گردد. در یکی از اشکال این نوع تحریم تنها بازیگران غیردولتی که مسؤول اصلی تخلفات بین‌المللی هستند مورد تحریم قرار می‌گیرند. یکی از اشکال تحریم هوشمند تحریم اشخاص حقیقی است که مسائل نوینی را با خود مطرح کرده است. هرچند این تحریم‌ها به دلیل تخلفات بین‌المللی برخی اشخاص اعمال می‌گردد، اما خود می‌تواند با نقض برخی از اصول حقوق بین‌الملل همراه باشد. تحریم برخی اتباع ایرانی که در سال‌های اخیر به استناد فعالیت در برنامه‌های هسته‌ای، موشک‌های بالستیک و نقض حقوق بشر اعمال شده است، می‌تواند با اصولی چون اصل مصونیت اموال دولتی، اصل مصونیت دیپلماتیک و کنسولی، تعهدات دولت میزبان طبق موافقتنامه مقر، حق بر رفت و آمد، حق بر مالکیت خصوصی و حق بر دسترسی به عدالت در تعارض باشد. رویه قضایی ملی و منطقه‌ای نشان داده است که این اصول می‌تواند موجب بی‌اعتباری قطعنامه‌های شورای امنیت و یا مصادیق مورد نظر کمیته تحریم شورای امنیت شود

کلیدواژه‌ها


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